Standards in Additive Manufacturing (AM)
As additive manufacturing moves towards production, the need for standards covering all aspects of AM technology becomes a must. Standards cover many aspects such as process, feedstock, file structure, part quality, yield, and more. More than half a dozen standard agencies define AM standards for various industries such as ASTM (formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials), ANSI (American national standards institute) ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) NASA and more. In this study, we will not be defining standards, but utilize existing standards and methods to gauge machine and part quality in AM, providing you also with the tools to extract the performance limits of your SLS/SLM 3D printer. Specifically, we’ll be focusing on the dimensional and microstructural integrity of an AM part. Choosing the international tolerance ISO-286 for dimensional tolerances, defined by the ISO as Geometrical Product Specifications – GPS. ISO-286 is a broader standard covering also subtractive manufacturing (SM) and tooling. Therefore, a good standard for comparison to other technologies. For structural integrity, we’ll analyze the bond consistency of the material and deploy our own analysis tool.
How AM compares to other industries Table 1 demonstrates how standards apply for the consumer to gauge product performance. This leaves us with an obvious question: would you buy a Tesla knowing that the range is 50 miles per charge?
Table 1 We’ll be introducing standards in AM with regard to print accuracy and Microstructural Integrity (MI). For AM to migrate to manufacturing, performance needs to be clearly stated. By the end of this study, you will have the tools to gauge how your printer performs vs. subtractive manufacturing such (SM) as CNC, milling technologies and most importantly vs. other printers. The study is broken into six chapters.
|Product||Cost||Blue sky Standard||Performance/Standard||Standard code|
|Tesla car||50,000 USD||2000 miles per charge||350 miles per charge||EPA|
|CNC machine||25,000 USD|| ±10 micrometers||±20 - ±40 micrometers||International Tolerance under ISO 286|
|SLM 3D printer||50,000 - 1,000,000 USD|| ±10 micrometers||No standards are published||International Tolerance under ISO 286|
Part 3 – Calculating positioning errors for your AM printer Part 1-2 recap: The additive manufacturing (AM) consumer is very enthused. They can pay 500,000USD for a printer without having a tolerance spec sheet for the printer Subtractive Manufacturing (SM) needs to deal with part accuracy only while AM needs to deal with part accuracy…
Part 2 – Identifying the source for the errors and how they propagate Part 1 recap: The additive manufacturing (AM) consumer is very enthused. They can pay 500,000USD for a printer without having a tolerance spec sheet for the printer Subtractive Manufacturing (SM) needs to deal with part accuracy only while AM needs to deal…
As additive manufacturing moves towards production, standards covering all aspects of AM technology become necessary. Standards cover many aspects, such as process, feedstock, file structure, part quality, yield, and more. Over half a dozen l standard agencies defined AM standards for various vertical industries. The issue is with standards adaptation rather than with defining new…